**Mathematical symbols**: Different types of math symbols are Basic Symbols, Numeral Symbols, Greek Alphabets, Geometry Symbols, Algebra Symbols, Logic Symbols, Probability and Statistics Symbols, Calculus & Analysis Symbols, Set Theory Symbols.

**Mathematics** is a universal language and Mathematical symbols play a major role in this. Meaning and value Mathematical symbols are constant.

The symbols of mathematics not only refer to different quantities but also represent the relationship between two quantities. Mathematical symbols are mainly used to conduct mathematical operations under various concepts.

We know that the concept of mathematics is purely dependent on numbers and symbols. The relationship between symbol and value reflects the basic fundamental of mathematics.

**Different Types Of Mathematical Symbols**

- Basic math Symbols
- Numeral Symbols
- Greek Alphabets Symbols
- Geometry Symbols
- Algebra Symbols
- Probability and Statistics Symbols
- Logic Symbols
- Calculus & Analysis Symbols
- Set Theory Symbols

**List of all mathematical symbols with Meaning.**

**Basic Math Symbols**

Basic mathematical symbols are used to express mathematical ideas. With the help of basic symbols, some concepts and ideas of mathematics are clearly explained.

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning of Symbol |

≠ | Not Equal Sign | Inequality |

= | Equals Sign | Equality |

≈ | Approximately Equal | Approximation |

< | Strict Inequality | Less Than |

> | Strict Inequality | Greater Than |

≤ | Inequality | Less Than or Equal To |

≥ | Inequality | Greater Than or Equal To |

[ ] | Brackets | Calculate Expression Inside First |

( ) | Parentheses | Calculate Expression Inside First |

− | Minus Sign | Subtraction |

+ | Plus Sign | Addition |

∓ | Minus – Plus | Both Minus and Plus Operations |

± | Plus – Minus | Both Plus and Minus Operations |

× | Times Sign | Multiplication |

* | Asterisk | Multiplication |

÷ | Division Sign / Obelus | Division |

∙ | Multiplication Dot | Multiplication |

– | Horizontal Line | Division or Fraction |

/ | Division Slash | Division |

% | Percent | 1% = 1/100 (The amount in every hundred.) |

. | Period | Decimal Point, Decimal Separator |

mod | Modulo | Remainder Calculation |

a^{b} | Power | Exponent |

a^b | Caret | Exponent |

√a | Square Root | √a ⋅ √a = a |

^{3}√a | Cube Root | ^{3}√a •^{3}√a • ^{3}√a = a |

^{4}√a | Fourth Root | ^{4}√a •^{4}√a • ^{4}√a • ^{4}√a = a |

^{n}√a | N-Th Root (Radical) | ^{n}√a • ^{n}√a • • • n times = a |

ppm | Per-Million | 1 ppm = 1/1000000 |

‰ | Per-Mille | 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% |

ppt | Per-Trillion | 1ppt = 10^{-12} |

ppb | Per-Billion | 1 ppb = 1/1000000000 |

**Numeral Symbols**

Symbols and collections of mathematical symbols used to represent numbers based on different types of the ancient system.

Name | Western Arabic | Roman | Eastern Arabic | Hebrew |
---|---|---|---|---|

zero | 0 | ٠ | ||

one | 1 | I | ١ | א |

two | 2 | II | ٢ | ב |

three | 3 | III | ٣ | ג |

four | 4 | IV | ٤ | ד |

five | 5 | V | ٥ | ה |

six | 6 | VI | ٦ | ו |

seven | 7 | VII | ٧ | ז |

eight | 8 | VIII | ٨ | ח |

nine | 9 | IX | ٩ | ט |

ten | 10 | X | ١٠ | י |

eleven | 11 | XI | ١١ | יא |

twelve | 12 | XII | ١٢ | יב |

thirteen | 13 | XIII | ١٣ | יג |

fourteen | 14 | XIV | ١٤ | יד |

fifteen | 15 | XV | ١٥ | טו |

sixteen | 16 | XVI | ١٦ | טז |

seventeen | 17 | XVII | ١٧ | יז |

eighteen | 18 | XVIII | ١٨ | יח |

nineteen | 19 | XIX | ١٩ | יט |

twenty | 20 | XX | ٢٠ | כ |

thirty | 30 | XXX | ٣٠ | ל |

forty | 40 | XL | ٤٠ | מ |

fifty | 50 | L | ٥٠ | נ |

sixty | 60 | LX | ٦٠ | ס |

seventy | 70 | LXX | ٧٠ | ע |

eighty | 80 | LXXX | ٨٠ | פ |

ninety | 90 | XC | ٩٠ | צ |

one hundred | 100 | C | ١٠٠ | ק |

**Greek Alphabets Symbols**

Greek alphabets are generally used to represent the variables, constants, functions and other mathematical objects. Some Greek Alphabets mathematical symbols are mentioned below:

Upper Case Letter | Lower Case Letter | Greek Letter Name | English Equivalent | Letter Name Pronounce |
---|---|---|---|---|

Α | α | Alpha | a | al-fa |

Β | β | Beta | b | be-ta |

Γ | γ | Gamma | g | ga-ma |

Δ | δ | Delta | d | del-ta |

Ε | ε | Epsilon | e | ep-si-lon |

Ζ | ζ | Zeta | z | ze-ta |

Η | η | Eta | h | eh-ta |

Θ | θ | Theta | th | te-ta |

Ι | ι | Iota | i | io-ta |

Κ | κ | Kappa | k | ka-pa |

Λ | λ | Lambda | l | lam-da |

Μ | μ | Mu | m | m-yoo |

Ν | ν | Nu | n | noo |

Ξ | ξ | Xi | x | x-ee |

Ο | ο | Omicron | o | o-mee-c-ron |

Π | π | Pi | p | pa-yee |

Ρ | ρ | Rho | r | row |

Σ | σ | Sigma | s | sig-ma |

Τ | τ | Tau | t | ta-oo |

Υ | υ | Upsilon | u | oo-psi-lon |

Φ | φ | Phi | ph | f-ee |

Χ | χ | Chi | ch | kh-ee |

Ψ | ψ | Psi | ps | p-see |

Ω | ω | Omega | o | o-me-ga |

**Geometry Symbols**

In mathematics, geometric symbols are used to configure geometric objects – the most basic straight lines, circles, and end points.

**Algebra Symbols**

Algebra mathematical symbols are the major component of math that is used to unify mathematics concepts.

Algebra symbols are used to represent variables to find the distance, the perimeter of an area, volume, determining the cost of something, renting something, time relationships, pricing options for something you want to buy, and more.

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning of Symbol |
---|---|---|

x | x variable | to find the unknown value |

≡ | equivalence | identical to |

≜ | equal by definition | equal by definition |

:= | equal by definition | equal by definition |

~ | approximately equal | weak approximation |

≈ | approximately equal | approximation |

∝ | proportional to | proportional to |

∞ | lemniscate | figure-eight or ∞-shaped curves |

≪ | much less than | much less than |

≫ | much greater than | much greater than |

( ) | parentheses | calculate expression inside first |

[ ] | brackets | calculate expression inside first |

{ } | braces | set |

⌊x⌋ | floor brackets | rounds number to lower integer |

⌈x⌉ | ceiling brackets | rounds number to upper integer |

x! | exclamation mark | factorial |

| x | | vertical bars | absolute value |

f (x) | function of x | maps values of x to f(x) |

(f ∘ g) | function composition | (f ∘ g) (x) = f (g(x)) |

(a,b) | open interval | (a,b) = {x | a < x < b} |

[a,b] | closed interval | [a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b} |

∆ | delta | change / difference |

∆ | discriminant | Δ = b^{2} – 4ac |

∑ | sigma | summation – sum of all values in range of series |

∑∑ | sigma | double summation |

∏ | capital pi | product – product of all values in range of series |

e | e constant / Euler’s number | e = 2.718281828…ore = lim (1+1/x) , ^{x}x→∞ |

γ | Euler-Mascheroni constant | γ = 0.5772156649… |

φ | golden ratio | golden ratio constant |

π | pi constant | π = 3.141592654…is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle |

**Probability And Statistics Symbols**

Probability and statistics correspond to the mathematical study of chance and data, respectively.

Statistics and Probability theory have some commonly used rules, in addition to standard mathematical notation and mathematical symbols.

**Logic Symbols**

Logic symbols is commonly used to express logical representation. Some Logic mathematical symbols are mentioned below:

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning of Symbol |
---|---|---|

⋅ | and | and |

^ | caret / circumflex | and |

& | ampersand | and |

+ | plus | or |

∨ | reversed caret | or |

| | vertical line | or |

x‘ | single quote | not – negation |

x | bar | not – negation |

¬ | not | not – negation |

! | exclamation mark | not – negation |

⊕ | circled plus / oplus | exclusive or – xor |

~ | tilde | negation (equivalent to) |

⇒ | implies | if is true, then is also true |

⇔ | equivalent | if and only if (iff) |

↔ | equivalent | if and only if (iff) |

∀ | for all | |

∃ | there exists | |

∄ | there does not exists | |

∴ | therefore | |

∵ | because / since |

**Calculus & Analysis Symbols**

In mathematics, calculus represents courses of elementary and analysis which are mainly dedicated to the study of function limits.

**Set Theory Symbols**

Set theory mathematical symbols are used to define the properties of well-defined collections such as objects or numbers or functions.

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning of Symbol |

{ } | set | a collection of elements |

A ∪ B | union | Elements that belong to set A or set B |

A ∩ B | intersection | Elements that belong to both the sets, A and B |

A ⊆ B | subset | subset has few or all elements equal to the set |

A ⊄ B | not subset | left set is not a subset of right set |

A ⊂ B | proper subset / strict subset | subset has fewer elements than the set |

A ⊃ B | proper superset / strict superset | set A has more elements than set B |

A ⊇ B | superset | set A has more elements or equal to the set B |

Ø | empty set | Ø = { } |

P (C) | power set | all subsets of C |

A ⊅ B | not superset | set X is not a superset of set Y |

A = B | equality | both sets have the same members |

A \ B or A-B | relative complement | objects that belong to A and not to B |

A^{c} | complement | all the objects that do not belong to set A |

A ∆ B | symmetric difference | objects that belong to A or B but not to their intersection |

a∈B | element of | set membership |

(a,b) | ordered pair | collection of 2 elements |

x∉A | not element of | no set membership |

|B|, #B | cardinality | the number of elements of set B |

A×B | cartesian product | set of all ordered pairs from A and B |

N_{1} | natural numbers / whole numbers set (without zero) | N_{1} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,…} |

N_{0} | natural numbers / whole numbers set (with zero) | N_{0} = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4,…} |

Q | rational numbers set | Q= {x | x=a/b, a, b∈Z} |

Z | integer numbers set | Z= {…-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,…} |

C | complex numbers set | C= {z | z=a+bi, -∞<a<∞, -∞<b<∞} |

R | real numbers set | R= {x | -∞ < x <∞} |