Odisha is a state located in the east coast of India. It is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, Andhra Pradesh to the south, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Jharkhand to the north. With a population of over 41 million people (as per lastest census 2011 data is 41,974,218 of which male and female are 21,212,136 and 20,762,082 respectively), Odisha is one of the fastest-growing states in India, and it has a rich history, culture, and tradition that dates back to thousands of years.
History of Odisha
Odisha has a long and rich history that dates back to the ancient times. The earliest reference to Odisha is found in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, where it is referred to as Kalinga. Kalinga was an ancient kingdom that was known for its prosperity, wealth, and military might. The region was ruled by several dynasties over the centuries, including the Shailodbhavas, the Eastern Ganga dynasty, and the Mughals.
One of the most significant events in the history of Odisha was the war of Kalinga by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE. The violence and destruction that resulted from this war had a profound impact on Ashoka, who renounced violence and converted to Buddhism. The event is widely regarded as one of the defining moments in Indian history and has been remembered forever in Buddhist texts and monuments.
In the 7th century CE, the Shailodbhava dynasty established their kingdom in Odisha, ruling the region for several centuries. During this period, Hinduism flourished in the region, and many temples and monuments were built. The Shailodbhavas were known for their support of Hinduism and their contributions to Indian literature and art.
In the 12th century, the Eastern Ganga dynasty came to power in Odisha, ruling the region for several centuries. During this period, the Konark Sun Temple was built, which is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the most famous tourist attractions in the state. The Eastern Ganga dynasty was known for its contributions to temple architecture and Indian literature, including the famous poem Gita Govinda by Jayadev.
In the 16th century, Odisha came under the rule of the Mughal Empire, which ruled the region until the late 18th century. During this period, the Mughals introduced new cultural and administrative practices, which had a lasting impact on the region. With the decline of the Mughal empire, Marathas occupied Odisha.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British East India Company established control over Odisha, leading to economic and administrative changes in the region. The British introduced new economic policies and infrastructure projects, which helped to modernize the region.
During the Indian independence movement, Odisha played a significant role and produced several prominent leaders, including Madhusudan Das and Gopabandhu Das. These leaders fought for the rights of the people of Odisha and helped to raise awareness about the importance of independence from British rule.
After independence, Odisha became a separate state in the Indian Union and saw rapid economic and industrial growth, particularly in the fields of steel, aluminum, and electricity production. The state has also made significant contributions to Indian literature, music, and dance, with the Odissi classical dance style and the poetry of Jayadev and Rabindranath Tagore being well-known examples.
Today, Odisha is a diverse and vibrant state, with a rich cultural heritage, a thriving tourism industry, and a rapidly growing economy. The state is home to several important tourist attractions, including the Jagannath Temple in Puri, the Konark Sun Temple, and the Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar. The state is also known for its rich cuisine, traditional crafts, and vibrant festivals, which attract tourists from around the world.
Highlights of History of Odisha
- 8th century BCE: Kalinga, an ancient kingdom mentioned in Hindu texts, is established in the region.
- 261 BCE: The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka invades Kalinga and converts to Buddhism after witnessing the horrors of war.
- 7th century CE: The Shailodbhavas establish their kingdom in Odisha and promote Hinduism.
- 12th century CE: The Ganga dynasty establishes their rule and promote the development of temple architecture and literature.
- The Puri Jagannath Temple, one of the Char Dham pilgrimage sites in Hinduism, was built during the 12th century by the Eastern Ganga dynasty.
- The Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the 13th century by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga dynasty.
- 15th century CE: The region comes under the rule of the Eastern Ganga dynasty.
- During the 16th century, Odisha came under the rule of the Sultanate of Bengal and was later ruled by the Mughals.
- 1803 CE: The British East India Company takes control of Odisha.
- 1936 CE: Odisha becomes a separate province in British India.
- 1947 CE: India gains independence from British rule and Odisha becomes a state in the Indian Union.
- 1936-present: The modern state of Odisha continues to develop and grow, with a rich cultural heritage and a thriving tourism industry.
Facts about Odisha
- Location: Odisha is located on the east coast of India and is the ninth largest state in the country.
- Population: As of 2021, the population of Odisha is estimated to be over 48 million.
- Capital: Bhubaneswar is the capital of Odisha and is known for its rich cultural heritage and history.
- Language: Odia is the official language of Odisha and is widely spoken in the state.
- Religion: The majority of the population in Odisha is Hindu, followed by Muslim, Christian, and Sikh communities.
- Economy: The economy of Odisha is mainly driven by agriculture, mining, and tourism.
- Natural resources: Odisha is rich in natural resources, including minerals such as bauxite, coal, iron ore, and manganese.
- Wildlife: Odisha is home to several wildlife reserves and national parks, including the Chilika Lake, which is one of the largest brackish water lakes in Asia and is a habitat for a variety of migratory birds.
- Cultural heritage: Odisha is known for its rich cultural heritage, including its traditional dance style Odissi, its poetry, and its cuisine.
- Jagannath Temple: The Jagannath Temple in Puri is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in India and attracts millions of devotees every year.
- Konark Sun Temple: The Konark Sun Temple, located in Konark, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is known for its intricate carvings and stunning architecture.
- Dhauli Hill: Dhauli Hill, located near Bhubaneswar, is known for its historical significance as it is the site of the famous Kalinga War where Emperor Ashoka renounced violence and embraced Buddhism.
- Literature: Odia literature has a rich history and is known for its contributions to Indian literature, including the famous poem Gita Govinda by Jayadev.
- Sports: Hockey is the most popular sport in Odisha and the state has produced several famous players who have represented India at the international level.
- Beach destinations: Odisha is home to several popular beach destinations, including Puri and Konark, which attract tourists from all over the world.
- Handicrafts: Odisha is known for its traditional handicrafts, including Pattachitra paintings, stone and wood carvings, and applique work.
- Festivals: Odisha is famous for its colorful and vibrant festivals, including the famous Rath Yatra festival held in Puri every year.
- Cuisine: Odisha has a rich and diverse cuisine, with dishes such as dalma, pitha, and rasgolla being popular among locals and tourists alike.
- Natural beauty: Odisha is known for its natural beauty, including scenic waterfalls, lush green forests, and stunning mountain ranges.
- Education: Odisha has a well-developed education system, with several prestigious universities and institutions, including the Utkal University, the Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, and the National Institute of Technology Rourkela.
- Music: Odisha has a rich musical heritage, with traditional music styles such as Sambalpuri, Chhau, and Gotipua being popular among locals.
- Film Industry: Odisha has a thriving film industry, producing several award-winning films in the Odia language.
- Political leaders: Odisha has produced several prominent political leaders, including Biju Patnaik, who served as the Chief Minister of Odisha and was also a former union minister.
- Social movements: Odisha has a rich history of social movements, including the famous Bhoodan movement led by Vinoba Bhave, which aimed at land reforms and the distribution of land to the landless.